Franchise Bibliographies

In accordance with the Rosenberg International Franchise Center (RIFC) mission to conduct research and provide educational material about franchising, we have compiled bibliography lists on international franchise, social franchise, and franchise finance academic research to assist students, entrepreneurs, and the wider franchise community.

Abstracts of most articles are available to read free of charge on various publishing sites by Googling the citation provided here.

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Babich, V., & Tang, C. S. (2016). Franchise Contracting: The Effects of The Entrepreneur's Timing Option and Debt Financing. Production and Operations Management25(4), 662-683.

Bezemer, J. (2003, April). Notes of the presentation of Jan Bezemer on the financing of franchise networks. In ICPE Conference.

Bono, J. D. (1993). A Study of Franchise Financing, Performance Projections, and the Relationship Between the Franchisee and the Franchisor as the Major Obstacles to Successful Franchise Operations. Doctoral dissertation, Fontbonne College.

Ciećwierz, J. (2016). Franchising as a form of financing small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland on the example of retail chains Peter and Paul (Doctoral dissertation, Kolegium Nauk Ekonomicznych i Społecznych w Płocku).

Daszkowaki, D. (2010). Ease of Obtaining Franchise Financing. Available from: Franchise Training Programs. htm [Accesspried: 22/05/2010][Links].

Doty, J. L. (1971). Financing Franchise Systems. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly12(2), 17-22.

Fielder, S., & Kanwar, C. (2015). Crowdfunding and Franchising. Int'l J. Franchising L.13, 35.

Fine, P. D. (1968). Financing Franchise Expansion. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly9(3), 17-20.

Fine, P. D. (1969). Financing Franchise Expansion. Com. LJ74, 69.

Haley, G. (1992). Private finance for transportation and infrastructure projects: a view. International Journal of Project Management10(2), 63-68.

He, S. Q. (2008). Create good legal environment for public utilities adoption of the market principle based on franchise financing viewpoint. Pub Util2, 1-4.

Ibru, C. (2007). Financing Franchise through the small and medium enterprises equity investment scheme. In ATCTO Franchise Seminar paper. Thursday, May (Vol. 10, pp. 1-10).

Kirby, D. A., & Watson, A. (2003). Overcoming the financial constraints on small firm growth: the case of franchising. The Journal of Private Equity, 61-67.

Knight, R. M. (1986). Franchising from the franchisor and franchisee points of view. Journal of small business management24, 8.

Kotow, J. M. (1988). Borrower's Viewpoint: Financing a Franchise. Journal of Commercial Bank Unding. 70 (8): 4144.

Mat Hassan, E. (1998). PNS role in financing your franchise business. In Paper from the proceedings of The Malaysia Franchise Exhibition & Conference.

Mittelstaedt, R. A., & Peterson, M. O. (1980). Franchising and the Financing of Small Business. Interagency Task Force on Small Business Finance.

Nan, D., Lin, F., & Si, X. (2017). The Effect of Direct Financing on the Bank Franchise Value——An Empirical Study of Panzar-Rosse Model. Studies of International Finance6, 007.

Nilssen, D. (2008). Alternative Franchise Financing Can Close the Gap. FRANCHISING WORLD40(6), 33.

Park, K., & Jang, S. S. (2017). Is restaurant franchising capital a substitute for or a complement to debt?. International Journal of Hospitality Management63, 63-71.

Park, K., & Jang, S. S. (2018). Pecking order puzzle: Restaurant firms’ unique financing behaviors. International Journal of Hospitality Management70, 99-109.

Park, K., & Jang, S. (2018). Is franchising an additional financing source for franchisors? A Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition analysis. Tourism Economics, 1354816618757561.

Quindlen, T. (2004). In Franchise Financing, Flexibility Counts. FRANCHISING WORLD36(9), 21-22.

Savilonis, K. J. (2003). Think Flexibility in Franchise Financing. FRANCHISING WORLD35(7), 9-14.

Shane, S. A. (1996). Why franchise companies expand overseas. Journal of Business Venturing11(2), 73-88.

Sofijanova, E., & Stoimilova, N. (2016). Franchising and Leasing as a Support for the Growth of Small Businesses. Journal of Economics1(1).

Tyszka, A. (2016). Franchising as an alternative source of financing the company at the example of chosen gastronomic corporation (Doctoral dissertation, Zakład Polityki Społeczno-Gospodarczej).

Whittemore, M., Sherman, A. J., & Hotch, R. (1993). Financing your franchise. McGraw-Hill.

Xinyu, G. (2014). Strengthening Public Affairs through Project Financing of the Franchise Contract Foreign Intervention.

Abell, M., Fielder, S., & Singh, M. (2014). Bitcoin and international franchising. Int'l J. Franchising L.12, 33.

Alharbi, M. M. M. (2015). The potential Impact of International Franchising in Promoting and Developing Tourism Business in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

Aliouche, E. H. (2017). 15. International franchising: optimal market selection. Handbook of Research on Franchising, 295.

Aliouche E.H.; Bonet Fernandez D.; Chanut O.; Gharbi N. (2015)“Institutional Environments and the Internationalization of Franchise Chains:  The Contrasting Cases of Three North African Countries", Journal of Applied Business Research, 31(2), 417-436

Aliouche, E. H., & Schlentrich, U. A. (2008). International franchise assessment model: Entry and expansion in the European Union. Entrepreneurial Bus. LJ3, 517.

Aliouche E.H., Schlentrich U. (2011).  “Towards a Strategic Model of Global Franchise Expansion.” Journal of Retailing, 87 (3, 2011), 345-365

Aliouche, E. H., & Schlentrich, U. (2011). A model of optimal international market expansion: The case of US hotel chains expansion into China. In New developments in the theory of networks (pp. 135-154). Physica, Heidelberg.

Aliouche E.H., Schlentrich U., Frazer L. (2012). “Internationalization Modeling: A Comparative Analysis of American and Australian Franchise Firms.”Journal of Marketing Channels, 19:77-9

Alon, I. (2000). The organizational determinants of master international franchising. Journal of business and entrepreneurship12(2), 1.

Alon, I. (2001). International franchising in China with Kodak. Thunderbird International Business Review43(6), 737-754.

Alon, I. (2004). Global franchising and development in emerging and transitioning markets. Journal of Macromarketing24(2), 156-167.

Alon, I. (2006). Master international franchising in China: the case of The Athlete's Foot. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business4(1), 41-51.

Alon, I. (2006). Market conditions favoring master international franchising. Multinational Business Review14(2), 67-82.

Alon, I. (2012). Global franchising operations management: Cases in international and emerging markets operations. FT Press.

Alon, I. (2014). The internationalization of US franchising systems. Routledge.

Alon, I. (2016). Master International Franchising in China: The Case of the Athlete’s Foot. In Market Entry in China (pp. 133-145). Springer, Cham.

Alon, I., & McKee, D. (1999). Towards a macro environmental model of international franchising. Multinational Business Review7(1), 76.

Alon, I., & Shoham, A. (2010). Clustering for international market selection. In Franchising Globally (pp. 73-90). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Alon, I., Toncar, M., & Le, L. (2002). American franchising competitiveness in China. Journal of Global Competitiveness10(1), 65-83.

Alon, I., Toncar, M., & McKee, D. (2000). Evaluating foreign-market environments for international franchising expansion. Foreign Trade Review35(1), 1-11.

Alon, I., Ni, L., & Wang, R. Y. (2010). Internationalization of franchising. In Franchising globally (pp. 54-72). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Alon, I., Ni, L., & Wang, Y. (2012). Examining the determinants of hotel chain expansion through international franchising. International Journal of Hospitality Management31(2), 379-386.

Alon, I., Welsh, D. H., (2002). Global franchising in emerging and transitioning economies. International Journal of Business and Economics2(1), 332-343.

Alon, I., & Welsh, D. H. (2003). International franchising in industrialized markets: Western and Northern Europe. CCH Incorporated.

Altinay, L. (2004). Implementing international franchising: the role of intrapreneurship. International Journal of Service Industry Management15(5), 426-443.

Altinay, L. (2006). Selecting partners in an international franchise organisation. International Journal of Hospitality Management25(1), 108-128.

Altinay, L., & Miles, S. (2006). International franchising decision-making: An application of stakeholder theory. The Service Industries Journal26(4), 421-436.

Anttonen, N., Tuunanen, M., & Alon, I. (2005). The international business environments of franchising in Russia. Academy of Marketing Science Review2005, 1.

Altinay, L., & Wang, C. L. (2006). The role of prior knowledge in international franchise partner recruitment. International Journal of Service Industry Management17(5), 430-443.

Attard, C., Lindsey, M., Metzlaff, K., & Pratt, J. (2014). Internet Issues in International Franchising. Int'l J. Franchising L.12, 11.

Aydin, N., & Kacker, M. (1990). International outlook of US-based franchisers. International Marketing Review7(2).

Bae, H. (2016). Essay on the Lessons Learned from Korean Franchisors Going International. 프랜차이즈경영연구7(1), 5-11.

Baena, V. (2009). Modeling global franchising in emerging markets: An entry mode analysis. Journal of East-West Business15(3-4), 164-188.

Baena, V. (2012). Market conditions driving international franchising in emerging markets. International Journal of Emerging Markets7(1), 49-71.

Baena, V. (2013). Insights on international franchising: entry mode decision. Latin American Business Review14(1), 1-27.

Baena, V., & Cervino, J. (2012). International franchise expansion of service chains: insights from the Spanish market. The Service Industries Journal32(7), 1121-1136.

Baena, V., & Cerviño, J. (2014). International franchising decision-making: A model for country choice. Latin American Business Review15(1), 13-43.

Burton, F., & Cross, A. R. (1997). International franchising: market versus hierarchy. In Internationalisation strategies (pp. 135-152). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Burton, F., & Cross, A. R. (2015). A Reappraisal of Franchising Across National Boundaries in Foreign Market Entry Mode Analysis. In Proceedings of the 1993 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 638-642). Springer, Cham.

Byrd, K., & Ross, L. (2015). Global Opportunity Identification: Exploratory Analysis of the Precursors of Franchisor International Growth and Development.

Chen, Y., Justis, R. T., & Yang, H. L. (2004, March). Global e-business, international franchising, and theory of Netchising: A research alliance of east and west. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Society of Franchising Conference (pp. 5-7).

Chen, H. H. (2010). The explanations of agency theory on international multi-unit franchising in the Taiwanese marketplace. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online)3(1), 53.

Cheng, J. M. S., Lin, J. Y. C., Tu, H. H., & Wu, N. S. (2007). Toward a stage model of the international franchise system development: The experience of firms from Taiwan. Journal of Marketing Channels14(4), 65-83.

Choo, S. (2003). Determining the Critical Success Factors of International Franchising: Cases of Foreign Franchisors in East Asia.

Choo, S. (2005). Determinants of monitoring capabilities in international franchising: foodservice firms within East Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management22(2), 159-177.

Choo, S., Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. (2007). The selection of international retail franchisees in East Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics19(4), 380-397.

Dana, L. P. (Ed.). (2004). Handbook of research on international entrepreneurship. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Dant, R. P., & Grünhagen, M. (2014). International franchising research: Some thoughts on the what, where, when, and how. Journal of Marketing Channels21(3), 124-132.

Dev, C. S., Erramilli, M. K., & Agarwal, S. (2002). Brands across borders: determining factors in choosing franchising or management contracts for entering international markets. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly43(6), 91-104.

Dinu, A. M. (2016). Understanding the risks of international franchising. Quaestus, (8), 363.

Doherty, A. M. (2009). Market and partner selection processes in international retail franchising. Journal of Business Research62(5), 528-534.

Doherty, A. M. (2007). Support mechanisms in international retail franchise networks. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management35(10), 781-802.

Doherty, A. M., & Alexander, N. (2004). Relationship development in international retail franchising: Case study evidence from the UK fashion sector. European journal of marketing38(9/10), 1215-1235.

Doherty, A. M., & Alexander, N. (2006). Power and control in international retail franchising. European Journal of Marketing40(11/12), 1292-1316.

Dunning, J. H., Pak, Y. S., & Beldona, S. (2007). Foreign ownership strategies of UK and US international franchisors: An exploratory application of Dunning's envelope paradigm. International Business Review16(5), 531-548.

Eckhardt, D. (2015). International Franchising: How Agency Theory and Transaction Cost Theory Determine the Choice of Governance Structure (Doctoral dissertation, uniwien).

Elango, B. (2007). Are franchisors with international operations different from those who are domestic market oriented?. Journal of Small Business Management45(2), 179-193.

Falbe, C. M., & Welsh, D. H. (1998). NAFTA and franchising: A comparison of franchisor perceptions of characteristics associated with franchisee success and failure in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Journal of Business Venturing13(2), 151-171.

Fladmoe-Lindquist, K. (1996). International franchising: Capabilities and development. Journal of Business Venturing11(5), 419-438.

Fladmoe-Lindquist, K. (2000). 9 International franchising. Globalization of services: Some implications for theory and practice19, 197.

Floriani, B., & Lindsey, M. K. (2002). The continuing impact of the Internet on international franchising. Bus. L. Int'l, 86.

Frazer, L., Merrilees, B., & Bodey, K. (2007). Franchisors do their homework before entering international markets: Experiences from the Australian franchising sector. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal3(4), 437-452.

Garg, V. K., & Rasheed, A. A. (2003). International multi-unit franchising: an agency theoretic explanation. International Business Review12(3), 329-348.

Garg, V. K., & Rasheed, A. A. (2006). An explanation of international franchisors’ preference for multi-unit franchising. International Journal of Entrepreneurship10(1), 1-20.

Ghantous, N., Das, S. S., & Chameroy, F. (2018). Governance capabilities and relationship performance in international franchising. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services40, 19-30.

Giller, R. A., Wiselgren, S. L., & Gladdis, L. (2014). Enforcing arbitration awards in international franchising. Franchise LJ34, 351.

Gotsopoulou, N. (2000). Legal issues on international franchising and electronic commerce. Business Law Review21(12), 288-290.

Grewal, D., Iyer, G. R., Javalgi, R. R. G., & Radulovich, L. (2011). Franchise partnership and international expansion: a conceptual framework and research propositions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice35(3), 533-557.

Marko Grünhagen, Nada Mumdžiev, Barbara Harča, Tamara Milenković-Kerković & Jasmina Dlačić (2020) Franchising in the Balkans: History, status, and challenges, Journal of Marketing Channels, 26:1, 1-27, DOI: 10.1080/1046669X.2019.1646188

Grünhagen, Marko, Rajiv P. Dant and Mingxia Zhu (2012), “Emerging Consumer Perspectives on American Franchise Offerings: Variety Seeking Behavior in China,” Journal of Small Business Management, 50 (4), 596-620.

Grünhagen, Marko, Carl L. Witte and Susie Pryor (2010), “Effects of U.S.-based Franchising in the Developing World: A Middle-Eastern Consumer Perspective,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 9 (1), 1-17 (Lead Article).

Grünhagen, Marko and Carl L. Witte (2005), “The Role of Franchising as a Driver of Economic Development for Emerging Economies,” Journal of Business, Industry and Economics, 5 (Spring), 27-45.

Grünhagen, Marko and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (2003), “Multi-Unit Franchising: A New Opportunity for Franchisees Globally?,” in: Welsh, D.H.B. and Alon, I. (eds.), International Franchising: North America, the Pacific Rim, and Other Countries, Chicago, IL: CCH Inc., 95-115, ISBN 0-8080-0927-3.

Hadjimarcou, J., & Barnes, J. W. (1998). Case study: strategic alliances in international franchising-the entry of Silver Streak Restaurant Corporation into Mexico. Journal of Consumer Marketing15(6), 598-607.

Hawkes, C. K., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2002). International growth of US franchising: Cultural and legal barriers. International Franchising in Emerging Markets: Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America, 199-207.

Herndon, N. C. (2014). International franchising research and practice: Past, present, and future.

Heung, V. C., Zhang, H., & Jiang, C. (2008). International franchising: opportunities for China's state-owned hotels?. International Journal of Hospitality Management27(3), 368-380.

Hoffman, R. C., Munemo, J., & Watson, S. (2016). International franchise expansion: the role of institutions and transaction costs. Journal of International Management22(2), 101-114.

Hoffman, R. C., & Preble, J. F. (2004). Global franchising: Current status and future challenges. Journal of Services Marketing18(2), 101-113.

Hoffman, R. C., Watson, S., & Preble, J. F. (2016). International Expansion of United States Franchisors: A Status Report and Propositions for Future Research. Journal of Marketing Channels23(4), 180-195.

Hoy, F., & Stanworth, J. (2014). Franchising: an international perspective. Routledge.

Hunter Jr, R. J., & Lozada, H. R. (2000). Master Franchising/International Franchising-A Primer on Marketing and Legal Aspects. Jones L. Rev.4, 45.

Hussain, D., Sreckovic, M., & Windsperger, J. (2018). An organizational capability perspective on multi-unit franchising. Small Business Economics50(4), 717-727.

Huszagh, S. M., Huszagh, F. W., & McIntyre, F. S. (1992). International franchising in the context of competitive strategy and the theory of the firm. International Marketing Review9(5).

Jell-Ojobor, M., & Alon, I. (2017). 17. Determinants of master international franchising. Handbook of Research on Franchising, 348.

Jell-Ojobor, M., & Windsperger, J. (2017). 16. Internationalization of franchise networks. Handbook of Research on Franchising, 317.

Jeon, Hyo Jin (Jean), Brinja Meiseberg, Rajiv P. Dant and Marko Grünhagen (2016), “Cultural Convergence in Emerging Markets: The Case of McDonald’s in China and India,” Journal of Small Business Management, 54 (2), 732-749.

Johnson, J., & Alon, I. (2006). How do international franchisors cluster?. In Service Franchising (pp. 121-138). Springer, Boston, MA.

Kacker, M. P., & McCosker, C. F. (2015). Regional Variations in Franchise Fees International Markets: A Comparative Study of Australian and US Franchise Systems. In Proceedings of the 1997 World Marketing Congress (pp. 444-448). Springer, Cham.

Kalnins, A. (2005). Overestimation and venture survival: An empirical analysis of development commitments in international master franchising ventures. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy14(4), 933-953.

Kedia, B. L., Ackerman, D. J., & Justis, R. T. (1995). Changing barriers to the internationalization of franchising operations: perceptions of domestic and international franchisors. Thunderbird International Business Review37(4), 329-348.

Konigsberg, A. S. (1991). International franchising. Juris Pub Inc.

Kretinin, A., & Morgan, T. (2017). The impact of environmental factors on international performance of multiunit franchising. In United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings (p. 637). United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship.

Lafontaine, F., & Oxley, J. (2001). International franchising: Evidence from US and Canadian franchisors in Mexico (No. w8179). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Lafontaine, F., & Oxley, J. E. (2004). International franchising practices in Mexico: Do franchisors customize their contracts?. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy13(1), 95-123.

Lee, K. (2008). Issues for international franchising: lessons from the case of a Poland-based restaurant operator. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly49(4), 454-457.

Lozada, H. R., Hunter, R. J., & Kritz, G. H. (2005). Master franchising as an entry strategy: marketing and legal implications. Coastal Bus. J.4, 16-24.

Madanoglu, M., Alon, I., & Shoham, A. (2017). Push and pull factors in international franchising. International Marketing Review34(1), 29-45.

Madanoglu, M., & Castrogiovanni, G. J. (2017). 18. International franchising: influences of environmental uncertainty and munificence on market entry timing. Handbook of Research on Franchising, 377.

Merrilees, B. (2014). International franchising: Evolution of theory and practice. Journal of Marketing Channels21(3), 133-142.

Michael, S. C. (2003). Determinants of the rate of franchising among nations. MIR: management international review, 267-290.

Michael, S. C. (2014). Can franchising be an economic development strategy? An empirical investigation. Small business economics42(3), 611-620.

Moore, C. M., Birtwistle, G., & Burt, S. (2004). Channel power, conflict and conflict resolution in international fashion retailing. European Journal of Marketing38(7), 749-769.

Müller, H. J. (2015). The Internationalization of the Service Franchising Operations: Decision Making During Internationalization Process: A View in International Consulting/Training Business. pinnacle business management.

Mumdžiev, N. (2011). Allocation of decision rights in international franchise firms: The case of master and direct franchising. In New Developments in the Theory of Networks(pp. 45-58). Physica, Heidelberg.

Nguyen, P. (2015). Are you prepared for international franchising. This is a presentation given at the International Franchise Summit in Kuala.

Ni, L., & Alon, I. (2010). US-based fast-food restaurants: factors influencing the international expansion of franchise systems. Journal of Marketing Channels17(4), 339-359.

Paik, Y., & Choi, D. Y. (2007). Control, autonomy and collaboration in the fast food industry: A comparative study between domestic and international franchising. International Small Business Journal25(5), 539-562.

Pak, Y. S. (2002). The effect of strategic motives on the choice of entry modes: An empirical test of international franchisers. Multinational Business Review10(1), 28.

Pedro, M. I. (2009). AGENCY THEORY AND THE FRANCHISING INTERNATIONALIZATION INTENTION. International Journal of Academic Research1(2).

Pengilley, W. (1985). International franchising arrangements and problems in their negotiation. Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus.7, 185.

Petersen, B., & Welch, L. S. (2000). International retailing operations: downstream entry and expansion via franchising. International Business Review9(4), 479-496.

Pratt, J. (2015). A" Thoughtful, Useful, and Succinct Reference" on International Franchise Sales Laws. Franchise Law Journal35(2), 279.

Preble, J. F. (1995). Franchising systems around the globe: a status report. Journal of Small Business Management33(2), 80.

Preble, J. F., & Hoffman, R. C. (2006). Strategies for business format franchisors to expand into global markets. Journal of Marketing Channels13(3), 29-50.

Quinn, B. (1998). Towards a framework for the study of franchising as an operating mode for international retail companies. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research8(4), 445-467.

Quinn, B. (1999). Control and support in an international franchise network. International Marketing Review16(4/5), 345-362.

Quinn, B., & Alexander, N. (2002). International retail franchising: a conceptual framework. International journal of retail & distribution management30(5), 264-276.

Quinn, B., & Doherty, A. M. (2000). Power and control in international retail franchising–evidence from theory and practice. International marketing review17(4/5), 354-372.

Qureshi, J. A., Qureshi, M. S., & Qureshi, M. A. (2018). Mitigating Risk of Failure by Expanding Family Entrepreneurship and Learning from International Franchising Experiences of Johnny Rockets: A Case Study in Pakistan. International Journal of Experiential Learning & Case Studies3(1), 110-127.

Ramírez-Hurtado, J. M., Berbel-Pineda, J. M., & Palacios-Florencio, B. (2018). Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries. PloS one13(1), e0190391.

Robson, M. J., Kadile, V., Watson, K., & Clegg, L. J. (2018). International Franchising Relationships. In Advances in Global Marketing (pp. 427-446). Springer, Cham.

Rosado-serrano, A. L. E. X. A. N. D. E. R. (2018). International Franchising: Entry modes & Partnership Management in Latin America.

Rosado-Serrano, A., Dikova, D., & Paul, J. (2018). International franchising: A literature review and research agenda. Journal of Business Research85, 238-257.

Rosado-Serrano, A., & Paul, J. (2018). A new conceptual model for international franchising. International Journal of Hospitality Management.

Sashi, C. M., & Prasad Karuppur, D. (2002). Franchising in global markets: towards a conceptual framework. International Marketing Review19(5), 499-524.

Stanković, M. (2017). International Franchising in the Hotel Industry. Facta Universitatis, Series: Economics and Organization, 415-426.

Sternquist, B., & Goldsmith, E. B. (2018). International retailing. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Terry, Andrew L. and Marko Grünhagen (2017), “Franchising in Southeast Asia: Prerequisites, Progress and Prospects“, In: F. Hoy, R. Perrigot and A.L. Terry (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Franchising, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 451-481.

Thompson, M., & Merrilees, B. (2001). A modular approach to branding and operations for international retail franchising systems in emerging markets: An Australian perspective. International franchising in emerging markets: Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America, 105-18.

Trankheim, L. (1979). International franchising: a way to capture foreign markets. Los Angeles Business and Economics4(4), 26-30.

Tyre, K., Han, P., & Newton, N. (2017). International Due Diligence in Cross-Border Franchise Transactions. Franchise Law Journal37(1), 1-13.

Wang, C. L., & Altinay, L. (2008). International franchise partner selection and chain performance through the lens of organisational learning. The Service Industries Journal28(2), 225-238.

Watson, A., Stanworth, J., Healeas, S., Purdy, D., & Stanworth, C. (2005). Retail franchising: an intellectual capital perspective. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services12(1), 25-34.

Welch, L. S. (1989). Diffusion of franchise system use in international operations. International Marketing Review6(5).

Welch, L. S. (1993). Developments in international franchising. Journal of Global Marketing6(1-2), 81-96.

Welsh, D. H., & Alon, I. (Eds.). (2001). International franchising in emerging markets: Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cch Incorporated.

Welsh, D. H., & Alon, I. (Eds.). (2002). International franchising in industrialized markets: North America, the Pacific Rim, and other countries. CCH.

Welsh, D. H., Alon, I., & Falbe, C. M. (2006). An examination of international retail franchising in emerging markets. Journal of small Business management44(1), 130-149.

Welsh, D. H., & Alon, I. (2015). International Franchising and Other Forms of Entrepreneurship. Global Entrepreneurship, 195-228.

Whitehead, M. (1991). International franchising–Marks & Spencer: a case study. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management19(2).

Xiao, Q., O’Neill, J. W., & Wang, H. (2008). International hotel development: A study of potential franchisees in China. International Journal of Hospitality Management27(3), 325-336.

Yavas, B. (1989). The role of economic-demographic factors in US international restaurant franchising: An empirical investigation. Journal of Global Marketing2(1), 57-72.

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Berelowitz, D. (2012). Social Franchising innovation and the power of old ideas.

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Brown, M. D. (2014). The praxis of social enterprise and human security: An applied research agenda. Journal of Human Security10(1), 4-11.

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Chattopadhyay, I., Townsend, J. W., & RamaRao, S. (2015). Utilizing social marketing and social franchising models to expand access to the progesterone contraceptive vaginal ring.

Clinton, B. (2017). Social franchising: strengthening health systems through private sector approaches. Social Marketing and Public Health: Theory and Practice, 217.

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Crawford-Spencer, Elizabeth. (2015). Deriving meaning for social franchising from commercial franchising and social enterprise. Journal of Marketing Channels 22.3, 163-174.

Cumberland, Denise M., and Benjamin C. Litalien. Social franchising: A systematic review. Journal of Marketing Channels 25.3 (2018): 137-156.

Cumberland, D. M., & Litalien, B. C. (2016). Social franchising: A systematic review. In Proceedings of the Annual International Society of Franchising Conference. University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

Daniele, R., & Quezada, I. (2017). Business Models for Social Entrepreneurship in Tourism. In Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism (pp. 81-100). Springer, Cham.

Davis, E. C., Evans, A., Uptmore, C., Lang, S., McElroy, J. K., Ellenburg, D., ... & Kash, B. A. (2018). Proposed business and franchising models for primary care in Kenya. European Journal of Training and Development42(1/2), 48-56.

DeSantola, Alicia. Scaling considerations for the social franchising model. Journal of Organization Design 10.3 (2021): 99-102.

Di Iacovo, F. P., Moruzzo, R., Scarpellini, P., Galasso, A., & Paolini, S. (2015). Social franchising and social farming, for promoting the co-production of knowledge and values: the IBF case. In Second International Conference on Agriculture in an Urbanizing Society: Reconnecting Agriculture and Food Chains to Societal Needs. Regione Lazio.

Dobson, K., Boone, S., Andries, P., & Daou, A. (2018). Successfully creating and scaling a sustainable social enterprise model under uncertainty: The case of ViaVia Travellers Cafés. Journal of Cleaner Production172, 4555-4564.

Doherty, B., Haugh, H., & Lyon, F. (2014). Social enterprises as hybrid organizations: A review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews16(4), 417-436.

du Toit, A. (2014). Social Franchising as Organizational Format—An Overview. In Social franchising (pp. 8-32). Palgrave Pivot, London.

Giudici, Alessandro, et al. Successful scaling in social franchising: The case of Impact Hub. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 44.2 (2020): 288-314.

Haemmerli, M., Santos, A., Penn-Kekana, L., Lange, I., Matovu, F., Benova, L., ... & Goodman, C. (2018). How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India. Health policy and planning33(3), 411-419.

Helm, Scott. (2004). Motivation for social entrepreneurship: Building an analytical framework. International Society of Third-Sector Research-Sixth Internacional Conference.

Hull, R., & Berry, R. (2016). The Social Entrepreneurship Option for Scientists and Engineers. In Engineering and Enterprise (pp. 27-44). Springer, Cham.

Iddy, Judith Jacob. Franchising, Knowledge Transfer Practices, and Institutions: Perspectives from Emerging Markets. (2021).

Johannisson, B. (2018). Disclosing everyday practices constituting social entrepreneuring–a case of necessity effectuation. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development30(3-4), 390-406.

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Ketchen Jr, David J., Jeremy C. Short, and James G. Combs. (2011). Is franchising entrepreneurship? Yes, no, and maybe so. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 35.3, 583-593.

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Koehlmoos, T. P., et al. (2011). Social franchising evaluations: a scoping review.

Kustiningsih, Nanik, et al. A Review Of Social Franchising: Consolidation Of Literature And Future Research Direction. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 9.2 (2020): 3164-3170.

LaVake, Steven D. (2003). Applying Social Franchising Techniques to Youth Reproductive Health-HIV Services. Family Health International.

Litalien, B. C. (2006). Era of the social franchise: where franchising and nonprofits come together. Franchising World 38.6, 77-88.

Lönnroth, K., Aung, T., Maung, W., Kluge, H., & Uplekar, M. (2007). Social franchising of TB care through private GPs in Myanmar: an assessment of treatment results, access, equity and financial protection. Health policy and planning22(3), 156-166.

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Maciejewski, B., Jaana, M., Keely, E., Crowe, L., & Liddy, C. (2018). Social franchising: Scale and spread of innovation in Canada. Health Policy and Technology7.2 (2018): 217-223.

Mavra, Lidija. (2011). Growing social enterprise: research into social replication. Social Enterprise Coalition 

McBride, J. (2018). Setting the record straight on social franchising. The Lancet Global Health6(6), e611.

McBride, Julie, and Rehana Ahmed. (2001). Social franchising as a strategy for expanding access to reproductive health services: a case study of the Green Star service delivery network in Pakistan.

McDiarmid, N. (2015). Social franchising: human settlements. IMIESA40(1), 43.

McKague, K., Harji, K., & Jiwa, F. (2018). Farm Shop: lessons learned from scaling a social franchise.

McNeill-Ritchie, S., P. Shine, and A. Hawkins. 2014. Social franchising: Scaling up for success. Publication of the Shaftesbury Partnership. Available: http://www. shaftesburypartnership. org/sites/default/files/pdf/Social-Franchising-Scaling-Up-for-Success. pdf. Accessed September 21 (2011).

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Montagu, Dominic. (2002). Franchising of health services in low-income countries. Health policy and planning 17.2: 121-130.

Montagu, D., Sieverding, M., & Briegleb, C. (2015). User experiences with clinical social franchising: qualitative insights from providers and clients in Ghana and Kenya.

Mumtaz, Z. (2018). Social franchising: whatever happened to old-fashioned notions of evidence-based practice?. The Lancet Global Health6(2), e130-e131.

Mumtaz, Z. (2018). Setting the record straight on social franchising–Author's reply. The Lancet Global Health6(6), e612.

Munroe, E., Hayes, B., & Taft, J. (2015). Private-sector social franchising to accelerate family planning access, choice, and quality: results from Marie Stopes International. Global Health: Science and Practice3(2), 195-208.

Naatu, Felicia, and Ilan Alon. Social franchising: A bibliometric and theoretical review. Journal of Promotion Management 25.5 (2019): 738-764.

Naatu, Felicia, Ilan Alon, and Rehema Uwamahoro. Micro-franchising in the bottom of the pyramid market: Rwanda. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship 13.1 (2020): 71-91.

Nguyen, P. H., Kim, S. S., Keithly, S. C., Hajeebhoy, N., Tran, L. M., Ruel, M. T., ... & Menon, P. (2013). Incorporating elements of social franchising in government health services improves the quality of infant and young child feeding counselling services at commune health centres in Vietnam. Health policy and planning29(8), 1008-1020.

Ngo, A. D., Alden, D. L., Hang, N., & Dinh, N. (2009). Developing and launching the government social franchise model of reproductive health care service delivery in Vietnam. Social Marketing Quarterly15(1), 71-89.

Ngo, Anh D., et al. (2010). The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam. BMC Health Services Research 10.1: 54.

Nijmeijer, K. J., Fabbricotti, I. N., & Huijsman, R. (2015). Creating advantages with franchising in healthcare: an explorative mixed methods study on the role of the relationship between the franchisor and units. PloS one10(2), e0115829.

Norton, M. (2014). The Scope for Scaling Up Social Enterprises in China. In Social Franchising (pp. 48-60). Palgrave Pivot, London.

Palmer, J. E., & Grace, A. R. (2014, July). The Homogeneity of Society: The Role of Franchising. In Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society (Vol. 25, pp. 14-19).

Pan, D., Neihaus, L., Abubakar, I., Batra, S., & Lipman, M. (2018). Obstacles facing an effective national tuberculosis treatment program: a case study of India. Tuberculosis and Pulmonology.

Park, Jaehong, Kumju Hwang, and Sang-Joon Kim. Forming a social partnership between a small social enterprise and a large corporation: A case of the joint platform, H-JUMP. Sustainability 10.10 (2018): 3612.

Penn-Kekana, Loveday, et al. Process evaluation of a social franchising model to improve maternal health: evidence from a multi-methods study in Uttar Pradesh, India. Implementation Science 13.1 (2018): 1-15.

Perrigot, Rozenn, and Komlanvi Elom Gbetchi. Social franchise chains operating in African countries: are their social goals aligned with the 2030 United Nations sustainable development goals?. International Journal of Emerging Markets ahead-of-print (2022)

Perrigot, R. (2018). Franchising in the healthcare sector: The case of Child and Family Wellness clinics in Kenya. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services41, 227-238.

Picciotti, A. (2017). Towards sustainability: The innovation paths of social enterprise. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics88(2), 233-256.

Piggot, C. (2004). Up, up and away. The possibilities of social franchising. Social Enterprise 3: 8-10.

Rawat, R., Nguyen, P. H., Tran, L. M., Hajeebhoy, N., Nguyen, H. V., Baker, J., ... & Menon, P. (2017). Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation–3. The Journal of nutrition147(4), 670-679.

Richardson, M., and Dan Berelowitz.  (2012). Investing in Social Franchising. London: The International Centre for Social Franchising (ICSF).

Riley, C., Garfinkel, D., Thanel, K., Esch, K., Workalemahu, E., Anyanti, J., ... & Bertrand, J. (2018). Getting to FP2020: Harnessing the private sector to increase modern contraceptive access and choice in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and DRC. PloS one13(2), e0192522.

Scheuerle, T., & Schmitz, B. (2016). Inhibiting Factors of Scaling up the Impact of Social Entrepreneurial Organizations–A Comprehensive Framework and Empirical Results for Germany. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship7(2), 127-161.

Seid, M., & Seid, M. H. (2017). Social-sector franchising for healthcare. In Microfranchising (pp. 135-153). Routledge.

Sensalire, Simon, Dorothy Balaba Byansi, and Zacch Akinyemi. (2015). Social Franchising In Context Of Marketing Long-Term And Reversible Contraceptives (Larcs) In Uganda: Analysis Of Pace Social Franchise Model. Ecoforum Journal4.1: 6.

Sieverding, M., Onyango, C., & Suchman, L. (2018). Private healthcare provider experiences with social health insurance schemes: Findings from a qualitative study in Ghana and Kenya. PloS one13(2), e0192973.

Sireau, N. (Ed.). (2017). Microfranchising: How social entrepreneurs are building a new road to development. Routledge.

Sivakumar, A., and Jan PL Schoormans. (2011). Franchisee selection for social franchising success. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 23.3: 213-225.

Smith, E. (1997). Social franchising for EU member states; experts meeting on HIV. AIDS 97: 213.

Smith, E., Brugha, R., & Zwi, A. (2001). Working with private sector providers for better health care: an introductory guide. London School of Tropical Medicine.

Smith, E., & Risi, L. (2002). Social Franchising Reproductive Health Services: Can it Work: a Review of the Experience. Marie Stopes International.

Sorenson, Olav. Franchising for the social sector. Journal of Organization Design 10.3 (2021): 119-121.

Sutherland, M., & Krige, K. (2017). Unjani “clinics in a container”: social franchising in South Africa. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies7(1), 1-23.

Szerb, Anna, Ilze Kivleniece, and Vikas Aggarwal. Unjani Clinics: meeting the need for scale through social franchising. Journal of Organization Design 10.3 (2021): 93-97.

Temple, N., et al.  (2011). The social franchising manual. London: Social Enterprise UK.

Thurston, S., Chakraborty, N. M., Hayes, B., Mackay, A., & Moon, P. (2015). Establishing and scaling-up clinical social franchise networks: lessons learned from Marie Stopes International and Population Services International. Global Health: Science and Practice3(2), 180-194.

Thurston, S., Menotti, E., & Malarcher, S. (2018). Social franchising: Improving quality and expanding contraceptive choice in the private sector.

Tracey, Paul, and Owen Jarvis. (2007) Toward a theory of social venture franchising. Entrepreneurship theory and practice31.5: 667-685.

UK, Social Enterprise. (2012). What Makes a Social Enterprise a Social Enterprise?. Social Enterprise UK.

Viswanathan, R., Schatzkin, E., & Sprockett, A. (2014). Clinical social franchising compendium: an annual survey of programs: findings from 2013. San Francisco: Global Health Group University of California San Francisco.

Volery, Thierry, and Valery Hackl. (2010). The promise of social franchising as a model to achieve social goals.

Wall, K., Ive, O., Bhagwan, J., Birkholtz, W., Lupuwana, N., & Shaylor, E. (2014). Social franchising partnership creates jobs: training. IMIESA39(2), 29-34.

Wall, K., Ive, O., Bhagwan, J., Birkholtz, W., Lupuwana, N., & Shaylor, E. (2014). Social franchising partnership creates jobs: Part 1.

Wall, K., Ive, O., Shaylor, E., Bhagwan, J., & Lupuwana, N. Catalysing local service delivery capacity through social franchising principles.

Webster, G. B., & Hume, M. (2018). Analysing the Role of Social Media in Dialogue Marketing and Management as a Contemporary Franchising Local Area Marketing Technique. In Social Media Marketing: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice (pp. 176-205). IGI Global.

Zafeiropoulou, F. A. (2017). The social franchise model: a systems approach of the dynamics of institutions and embeddedness in social franchise formation. In Handbook of Research on Franchising. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Zafeiropoulou, Fiori A., and Dimitrios N. Koufopoulos. (2013). The influence of relational embeddedness on the formation and performance of social franchising. Journal of Marketing Channels 20.1-2: 73-98.

Zafeiropoulou, F. A., & Koufopoulos, D. (2014). The Influence Of The Relational Marketing Paradigm On The Governance Of The Novel Channel Format Named Social Franchising: An Exploratory Qualitative Analysis Of Four Social Franchises From The Uk. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship19(02), 1450013.

Zajko, Katja, and Barbara Bradač Hojnik. Social franchising model as a scaling strategy for ICT reuse: A case study of an international franchise. Sustainability 10.9 (2018): 3144.

Zeyen, Anica. Commentary for Unjani clinics: meeting the need for scale through social franchising. Journal of Organization Design 10.3 (2021): 123-125.

Franchising Performance and Measurement

Aliouche E.H., Schlentrich U. (2009). Does Franchising Create Value? – An Analysis of the Financial Performance of the US Public Restaurant Franchisors.  International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration; 10 (2/2009), 93-108

Aliouche E.H., Kaen F.R., Schlentrich U. (2012). The Market Performance of Franchise Stock Portfolios, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 24 No. 5: 791-809

Andonova, Liliana B., and Marc A. Levy. (2003). Franchising global governance: making sense of the Johannesburg type II partnerships. Yearbook of international cooperation on environment and development 4: 19-31.

Austin, James, Howard Stevenson, and Jane Wei‐Skillern. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both?. Entrepreneurship theory and practice 30.1: 1-22.

Beyeler, Naomi, Anna York De La Cruz, and Dominic Montagu. (2013). The impact of clinical social franchising on health services in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review. PloS one 8.4: e60669.

Elango, Balasubramanian, and Vance H. Fried. (1997). Franchising research: A literature review and synthesis. Journal of Small Business Management 35.3: 68.

Haugh, Helen. (2005). A research agenda for social entrepreneurship. Social enterprise journal 1.1: 1-12.

Kaplan, Robert S., and David P. Norton. (2001). Transforming the balanced scorecard from performance measurement to strategic management: Part I. Accounting horizons 15.1: 87-104.

Meiseberg, Brinja, and Thomas Ehrmann. (2012). Lost in translation? The prevalence and performance impact of corporate social responsibility in franchising. Journal of Small Business Management 50.4: 566-595.

Morrison, Kimberley A. (1997). How franchise job satisfaction and personality affects performance, organizational commitment, franchisor relations, and intention to remain. Journal of Small Business Management 35.3: 39.

Short, Jeremy C., Todd W. Moss, and G. Tom Lumpkin. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic entrepreneurship journal 3.2: 161-194.

Volkmann, C., K. Tokarski, and Kati Ernst. (2012). Social entrepreneurship and social business. An Introduction and Discussion with Case Studies. Gabler. Wiesbaden .

Social Enterprise

Alter, Kim. (2007). Social enterprise typology. Virtue Ventures LLC12: 1-124.

Alter, Sutia K. (2006). Social enterprise models and their mission and money relationships. Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable social change, 205-232.

Borzaga, C., & Defourny, J. (Eds.). (2004). The emergence of social enterprise (Vol. 4). Psychology Press.

Bull, Michael. (2008). Challenging tensions: critical, theoretical and empirical perspectives on social enterprise. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research 14.5, 268-275.

Chahine, Teresa. (2016). Introduction to Social Entrepreneurship. CRC Press.

Chell, Elizabeth. (2007). Social enterprise and entrepreneurship: towards a convergent theory of the entrepreneurial process. International small business journal 25.1: 5-26.

Chell, Elizabeth, Katerina Nicolopoulou, and Mine Karataş-Özkan. (2010). Social entrepreneurship and enterprise: International and innovation perspectives. 485-493.

Coalition, Social Enterprise. (2003). There’s more to business than you think: A guide to social enterprise. London: Social Enterprise Coalition.

Coalition, Social Enterprise. (2009). State of social enterprise survey 2009. London: Social Enterprise Coalition .

Cornelius, Nelarine, et al. (2008). Corporate social responsibility and the social enterprise. Journal of Business Ethics 81.2: 355-370.

Crawford-Spencer, Elizabeth, and Francina Cantatore. (2016). Models of franchising for social enterprise. Journal of Marketing Channels 23.1-2: 47-59.

Dart, Raymond. (2004). The legitimacy of social enterprise. Nonprofit management and leadership 14.4: 411-424.

Dees, J. G., & Elias, J. (1998). The Challenges of Combining Social and Commercial Enterprise-University-Business Partnerships: An AssessmentBowie Norman E. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1994. Business ethics quarterly8(1), 165-178.

Defourny, Jacques, and C. Borzaga. (2001). From third sector to social enterprise. London: Routledge

Defourny, Jacques, and Marthe Nyssens. (2006). Defining social enterprise. Social enterprise: At the crossroads of market, public policies and civil society 7, 3-27.

Defourny, Jacques, and Marthe Nyssens. (2008). Social enterprise in Europe: recent trends and developments. Social enterprise journal 4.3, 202-228.

Defourny, Jacques, and Marthe Nyssens. (2010). Social enterprise in Europe: At the crossroads of market, public policies and third sector. Policy and society 29.3: 231-242.

Defourny, Jacques, and Marthe Nyssens. (2010). Conceptions of social enterprise and social entrepreneurship in Europe and the United States: Convergences and divergences. Journal of social entrepreneurship 1.1, 32-53.

Defourny, Jacques, and Marthe Nyssens. (2012). Conceptions of social enterprise in Europe: A comparative perspective with the United States. Social Enterprises. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 71-90.

Doeringer, Matthew F. (2009). Fostering social enterprise: A historical and international analysis. Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 20, 291.

Galera, Giulia, and Carlo Borzaga. (2009). Social enterprise: An international overview of its conceptual evolution and legal implementation. Social enterprise journal 5.3, 210-228.

Gray, Mel, Karen Healy, and Penny Crofts. (2003). Social enterprise: is it the business of social work?. Australian Social Work 56.2, 141-154.

Harding, Rebecca. (2004). Social enterprise: the new economic engine?. Business Strategy Review 15.4, 39-43.

Haugh, Helen. (2012). The importance of theory in social enterprise research. Social Enterprise Journal 8.1, 7-15.

Katz, Robert A., and Antony Page. (2010). The role of social enterprise. Vt. L. Rev. 35, 59.

Kerlin, Janelle A. (2006). Social enterprise in the United States and Europe: Understanding and learning from the differences. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 17.3, 246.

Kerlin, Janelle A., ed. (2009). Social enterprise: A global comparison. UPNE.

Kerlin, Janelle A. (2010). A comparative analysis of the global emergence of social enterprise. VOLUNTAS: international journal of voluntary and nonprofit organizations 21.2, 162-179.

Laville, Jean-Louis, and Marthe Nyssens. (2001). 18 The social enterprise Towards a theoretical socio-economic approach.

Low, Chris. (2006). A framework for the governance of social enterprise. International journal of social economics 33.5/6, 376-385.

Lyon, Fergus, and Heather Fernandez. (2012). Strategies for scaling up social enterprise: lessons from early years providers. Social Enterprise Journal 8.1, 63-77.

Manetti, Giacomo. (2014). The role of blended value accounting in the evaluation of socio-economic impact of social enterprises. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 25.2, 443-464.

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