Ludwig Bstieler

Professor of Marketing
Paul College 326

Ludwig Bstieler is Professor in the Marketing department at the Paul College of Business and Economics at the University of New Hampshire. His general expertise is in marketing strategy and product innovation. He studies the design and marketing of new products with a particular emphasis on the influence of close buyer-supplier collaboration on product development. His research interests include the formation of trust in such ventures and, more specifically, how governance mechanisms facilitate or hinder successful collaborative new product development. In a multi-country research project on university-industry collaborations funded by the Volkswagen Foundation he examines how relational and contractual governance mechanisms can facilitate productive research collaborations between academia and industry. In his latest research, he studies the question of whether sustainability-minded firms can achieve better innovation outcomes and the circumstances that lead to these outcomes.

His research has been published in Journal of Product Innovation Management, Technovation, Journal of Business Research, Journal of World Business, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, and Asia Pacific Journal of Management, among others. He is Associate Editor of the Journal of Product Innovation Management and a member of the Scientific Committee for the International Product Development Management Conference of the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management. He recently served as co-chair of the PDMA Academic Research Forum.

Prior to joining the Peter T. Paul College of Business and Economics, Professor Bstieler was Assistant Professor of Marketing at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and held visiting positions at MIT's Sloan School of Management, the Michael DeGroote School of Business at McMaster University in Canada, and the European School of Management (ESCP Europe) in Paris. Over the past years he also taught in the Korea MOT program in Seoul. At the Paul College he currently teaches Marketing Strategy, New Product Development, and Marketing Research.

Select publications (see below for more research publications):

Bstieler, L., Hemmert, M. and Barczak, G. "The Changing Bases of Mutual Trust Formation in Inter-Organizational Relationships: A Dyadic Study of University-Industry Research Collaborations Trust Formation". Journal of Business Research (forthcoming).

Du, S., Yalcinkaya, G. and Bstieler, L. “Sustainability, social media driven open innovation, and new product development performance”. Journal of Product Innovation Management.

Bstieler, L. and Hemmert, M. “The effectiveness of relational and contractual governance in new product development collaborations: Evidence from Korea". Technovation.

Bstieler, L., Hemmert, M. and Barczak, G. "Trust formation in university-industry collaborations in the US biotechnology industry: IP policies, shared governance, and champions". Journal of Product Innovation Management.

Hemmert, M., Bstieler, L. and Okamuro, H. “Bridging the cultural divide: Trust formation in university-industry research collaborations in the US, Japan, and South Korea". Technovation.

Bstieler, L. and Hemmert, M. “Increasing learning and time efficiency in interorganizational new product development teams”. Journal of Product Innovation Management.

Bstieler, L. and Hemmert, M. “Developing trust in vertical product development partnerships: A comparison of Korea and Austria”. Journal of World Business

Bstieler, L. “Trust formation in collaborative new product development”. Journal of Product Innovation Management.

Bstieler, L. “The moderating effect of environmental uncertainty on new product development and time efficiency”. Journal of Product Innovation Management.

Fields of Specialization

New product development, marketing, university-industry collaborations.


Dr.rer.soc.oec., Marketing, University of Innsbruck, Austria (Ph.D.)
Mag.rer.soc.oec., Marketing (mj.), Strategic Management, Human Resource Management (ms.)
University of Innsbruck, Austria (MBA)

Recent Research

"The Changing Bases of Mutual Trust Formation in Inter-Organizational Relationships: A Dyadic Study of University-Industry Research Collaborations Trust Formation" with M. Hemmert and G. Barczak, Journal of Business Research (forthcoming).

We examine how trust in inter-organizational relationships develops over time in the context of university-industry (UI) research collaborations. Examining trust formation with dyadic data allows us to take into account that partners’ perceptions of relationship factors are not independent of each other’s actions. We adopt the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) for the analysis of data on 98 matched pairs of recent UI research collaborations and find that relationship maturity moderates the associations of reciprocal communication and decision process similarity with trust. The results further indicate that mutual trust formation is also influenced by the other partners’ perceptions of relationship factors. The findings suggest UI research partners can develop and maintain a trustful collaboration through reciprocal communication and, in the long term, by converging towards similar decision making processes.


Sustainability, social media driven open innovation, and new product development performance” with S. Du and G. Yalcinkaya, Journal of Product Innovation Management 2016.

This empirical study examines the relationship between sustainability and new product performance, strengthen the business case of sustainability. The results shed light on the underlying mechanism for the link between sustainability and NPD performance. Customer focus is a key pathway through which a firm’s sustainability orientation positively affects NPD performance. Sustainability orientation is likely to foster an organizational culture attuned to the evolving, multifaceted needs of customers, making the firm more customer-focused, and thus generating higher NPD performance. Furthermore, social media driven open innovation plays an important role in the NPD process moderating the link between SO and NPD performance.

Full article: 


The effectiveness of relational and contractual governance in new product development collaborations: Evidence from Korea”, with M. Hemmert. Technovation 45-46, November-December, 29-39, 2015.

This study provides a deeper understanding of the ways that companies in East Asia govern new product development collaborations to acquire external knowledge while achieving collaboration satisfaction. Looking through the lens of the relational view, we disentangle the effects of relational and contractual governance on collaborations outcomes. An analysis of survey data from South Korea indicates that the positive returns on collaboration satisfaction are diminished when both governance mechanisms are applied simultaneously. The findings further suggest that managers engaged in such new product collaborations in East Asia should invest more in relational governance while maintaining a moderate level of contractual safeguards to enhance collaboration outcomes.


"Trust formation in university-industry collaborations in the US biotechnology industry: IP policies, shared governance, and champions", with M. Hemmert and G. BarczakJournal of Product Innovation Management, 32(1), 2015.

Haggling over rights to potential inventions can be a major roadblock to successful university-industry collaboration. Yet such collaborations are critical for innovation in science-based industries. We examine the roles of universities’ intellectual property policies and of shared governance for trust formation. We also examine how champions moderate this process and how trust between university and industry partners affects collaboration outcomes. 


"Perceived external uncertainty, new product development, and the timeliness of international product launch: A commentary essay”, Journal of Business Research, 65(9), 2012.

New product launch is a critical stage of the innovation process, mainly because of the high risks and costs that it entails. Despite this importance, many scholars and managers consider the product launch the least well-managed phase of the entire innovation process. This commentary reflects on a recent study on how to efficiently roll out new products internationally in markets characterized by varying degrees of competitive and technological uncertainty. 


Bridging the cultural divide: Trust formation in university-industry research collaborations in the US, Japan, and South Korea”, with M. Hemmert and H. Okamuro. Technovation, 34(10), 2014.

We investigate trust formation in 618 university industry research collaborations (UICs) in three countries and find that in 'emerging UIC countries' where most firms and universities have little collaboration experience, reputation and the leadership by innovation champions are more important for trust formation than in 'advanced UIC countries' with strong and mature UIC networks. From a public policy perspective, the results suggest that networks between firms and universities should be generally strengthened and collaboration partners should be provided with effective contractual safeguards to enhance trust formation in UICs.


"Increasing Learning and Time Efficiency in Interorganizational New Product Development Teams", with M. Hemmert. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27, 2010.

Despite the growing popularity of new product development across organizational boundaries, the processes, mechanisms, or dynamics that leverage performance in interorganizational product development teams are not well understood. These collaborations can encounter difficulties when partners from different corporate cultures and thought worlds must coordinate and depend on one another and often lead to disappointing performance. 


"Trust formation in Korean new product alliances: How important are pre-existing social ties?", with M. Hemmert. Asia Pacific Journal of Managment, 27, 2010.

The focus of this study is on the nature and influence of social connections versus other relational mechanisms on trust formation in an emerging Asian economy. We examine the role of communication quality, perceived fairness, and pre-existing social relationships for the formation of trust in vertical new product development alliances in South Korea. 


"The Influence of Tie Strength Characteristics and Behavioral Factors on Knowledge Acquisition: A Study of Korean New Product Alliances", with M. Hemmert. Asian Business & Management, 7(1), 2008.

The importance of strong ties has been particularly emphasized in Korea, where inter-firm relationships within business groups tend to be close and hierarchical. In contrast, establishing ties with firms outside these groups is perceived to be difficult, not least due to a widespread distrust towards ‘out-groups’. Here, we investigate the influence of tie strength on knowledge acquisition in npd alliances in Korean manufacturing industries. 


"Developing Trust in Vertical Product Development Partnerships: A Comparison of South Korea and Austria", with M. Hemmert. Journal of World Business, The Korean Issue, 43(1), 2008.

We test a model of factors proposed to influence the formation of trust in R&D partnerships in two different cultures. With few exceptions, trust formation has not been studied in vertical R&D partnerships and tested to see if its central role generalizes across cultures. In an age of globalization, such collaborations have become an important strategy element, reflecting a tendency of manufacturers to more closely involve supply chain partners into product innovation.


"An inquiry into the status and nature of university-industry research collaborations in Japan and Korea", with M. Hemmert, H. Okamuro, and K. Ruth. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 49(2), 2008.

University-industry collaboration (UIC) has become an increasingly frequent innovation strategy, especially in the Western hemisphere. But we know much less about such research collaborations in East Asia. This study explores and contrasts the current nature and status of UICs in Japan and Korea focusing on factors that facilitate the development and management of such research linkages. 


"Trust Formation in Collaborative New Product Development", Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(1), 2006.

This research examines antecedents of trust formation in vertical new product development partnerships and its effect on partnership efficacy and project performance. Developing trust is easier said than done. Trust is not something that can be mandated; rather, it is an outcome of gradual and consistent effort over time. In fact, it may well be the most challenging aspect of creating an effective and efficient working relationship in collaborative product development. 


"The Moderating Effect of Environmental Uncertainty on New Product Development and Time Efficiency", Journal of Product Innovation Management, 22(3), 2005.

The present study addresses what is believed to be a shortcoming in the new product development literature and explores potential effects of environmental uncertainty on the development process, project organization, and on project timeliness with a sample of development projects in two countries, Canada and Australia. 


Measuring the effect of environmental uncertainty on process activities, project team characteristics and new product success”, with C. Gross. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 18(2), 2003.

In this paper we explore the influence of environmental context factors on the industrial new product development (NPD) process. The uncertainty and risk associated with new products makes it hardly surprising that innovating firms historically experienced high failure rates. Product development often requires navigating through unclear and shifting conditions. 


"Mode de développement et performance de projet: Les partenariats en matière de développement de nouveaux produits”, [Development mode and project performance]. Décision Marketing, 23 (Mai-Août), 2001.  

This research analyzes over one hundred new product development projects and provides insights into factors determining the development mode choice, i.e., whether to develop the new product internally or via collaboration with a supply-chain partner. The findings suggest that the partnering mode may not always be the most successful development mode when compared to internal development.


"Sequence-oriented problem identification within service encounters”, with G. Botschen and A. Woodside. Journal of Euromarketing, 5(2).

Sequence-oriented problem identification (SOPI) include "blueprinting" the sequence of steps that make up a service encounter, and asking customers to provide evaluations for each step they may experience in the service encounter process. SOPI is a tool that combines and extends Shostack's (1984; 1987) blueprinting of services with the critical incident technique (CIT) (Bitner, Booms & Tetreault 1990).


"Resource Needs, Relational Advantages, and New Product Development Project Outcomes: A Study of Austrian Manufacturers", with P. Lane. 26th Strategic Management Society International Conference, 2006.

"Ties That May Not Matter: The Mediating Role of Trust in Effective Information Exchange", with P. Lane. 13th International Product Development Management Conference, 2006.